Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)

IMPACTS OF ROCK MINERALIZATION AND POOR SANITARY SYSTEM ON BOREHOLE WATERS QUALITY AND THE HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

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IMPACTS OF ROCK MINERALIZATION AND POOR SANITARY SYSTEM ON BOREHOLE WATERS QUALITY AND THE HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

ABSTRACT

IMPACTS OF ROCK MINERALIZATION AND POOR SANITARY SYSTEM ON BOREHOLE WATERS QUALITY AND THE HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

Journal: Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)
Author: Nwonumara Godwin Nkwuda, Mmaduka Amarachi Theophine, Okechukwu Iduma Okogwu

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esp.01.2019.10.13

The quality of borehole waters in Abakaliki metropolis, Ebonyi State, Nigeria was assessed for six months. The study was designed to focus on the impacts of some mineral elements and poor sanitary system on the water quality. pH, conductivity and TDS were measured in situ while Calcium ion, Magnesium ion, Lead concentration and total coliform count were determined in the laboratory using standard methods. The results showed that mean pH (6.20) was lowest at Aguogboriga in the wet period while mean conductivity (805.00 µS cm-1) and TDS (402.00 mg L-1) were highest at Kpirikpiri in the dry season. Highest mean concentrations of Calcium ion (84.17 mg L-1) and Magnesium ion (149.37 mg L-1) were recorded in the wet period at Amasiri street. Mean Lead concentration (0.35 mg L-1) was highest at Brakenbury in the dry period and total coliform (24 CFU ml-1) at Amasiri street in the wet period. The study revealed that pH, Calcium ion, Magnesium ion, Lead (Pb) level and total coliform count were above the WHO acceptable standard for drinking water at some of the study locations. The target cancer risk (TR) calculated for Pb showed the possibility that individual might develop cancer over time of exposure. So, proper survey should be carried out before siting boreholes to reduce point source pollution.

Pages 10-13
Year 2019
Issue 1
Volume 3

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GEOLOGICAL AND LITHOLOGICAL MAPPING OF PART OF IGARRA SCHIST BELT USING INTEGRATED GEOPHYSICAL METHODS

ABSTRACT

GEOLOGICAL AND LITHOLOGICAL MAPPING OF PART OF IGARRA SCHIST BELT USING INTEGRATED GEOPHYSICAL METHODS

Journal: Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)
Author: Ademila, O, Okpoli, C.C, Ehinmitan, D

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esp.01.2019.01.09

Integrated geophysical techniques involving magnetic and radiometric data were used to investigate the subsurface geometry of Igarra schist belt in Precambrian basement complex of southwestern Nigeria which falls within the latitude range of 7° 1635.6” to 7° 1736.0’ North and longitude range of 6° 0534.1” to 6°05’44”East, with a view to interpret the geology of part of Igarra schist belt and estimate the depth to basement of magnetic source in the area. Six profiles were established with the objective of delineating the metasediments and its structural attributes, and geophysical measurements were made at 5m intervals along these profiles. The results of magnetic datasets were presented as maps and profiles of varying magnetic intensities and the causative rock types. Qualitative interpretation of the magnetic data using Reduction to pole, Analytical signal, first vertical, horizontal and tilt derivatives, upward continuation filters shows what has been interpreted as the signature of a near-vertical fault, trending along a NE-SW and NW-SE direction while radiometric datasets gave geochemical rates of U, Th and K as well as the effect of water contents on the rocks present within the study area. Qualitative and quantitative interpretation of individual magnetic anomalies and geological knowledge of the survey area yielded information on the depth of the geological features (e.g. rock contact, faults or fractures), structure and magnetic properties of rock units. 3D Euler deconvolution and Average radial spectrum were adopted to estimate the depth of the magnetic sources which ranges from – 92.895m to 73.95m; -115.45m to 57.44m and 63m to 44.1m; 88.2m to 81.9 m respectively. The Igarra schist belt has evolved different episodes of orogenies and the metasediments were formed from low grade regional metamorphism of argillaceous sediments such as shales or sediments of varying composition.

Pages 01-09
Year 2019
Issue 1
Volume 3

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STUDY OF SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIABILITY OF ARSENIC IN GROUNDWATER DUE TO DRAIN BY USING GIS

ABSTRACT

 

STUDY OF SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIABILITY OF ARSENIC IN GROUNDWATER DUE TO DRAIN BY USING GIS

Journal: Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)
Author: Ch. Arslan, Asma Sattar, Do Minh Cuong, Faizan ul Haq Khan, Abdul Nasir, Zia Bakhat, Fariha Ilyas

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esp.02.2018.22.24

Industrial activity is one of the major reason of groundwater contamination. Arsenic is one, which is responsible for the contamination of the groundwater. Its testing in groundwater is considered as an important activity due to its serious effects on human health. Arsenic problem in Pakistan has been identified recently as a result of field testing. In Faisalabad, arsenic has been found in groundwater within permissible limit. But due to increasing industrial activities the concentration of arsenic is increasing day by day. Drain passing through the city is one of the sources of arsenic in groundwater. The research work was conducted at Syedabbad, Faisalabad. Samples were taken from the selected drain portion and from the groundwater by the help of water pumps. The sampling points were drawn on GIS map by the help of GPS receiver to study the spatial variability of arsenic contamination The results shows that there 10109.9 mg per second intake of arsenic due to drain. Results show that there is no temporal variability of arsenic within the research period but they have spatial variability.

Pages 22-24
Year 2018
Issue 2
Volume 2

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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HOSPITAL WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AT DIFFERENT HEALTH CARE UNITS IN DISTRICT FAISALABAD FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVEMENT STRATEGIES

ABSTRACT

 

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HOSPITAL WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AT DIFFERENT HEALTH CARE UNITS IN DISTRICT FAISALABAD FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVEMENT STRATEGIES

Journal: Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)
Author: Naila Azeem, Ch. Arslan, Dr. Haroon Rashid, Asma Sattar

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esp.02.2018.16.21

In the world, healthcare waste comprises on different groups of waste due to the possibility of infectious importance. In develop and under developed countries, hospital and health care waste management was recognised discipline and in the management of health care economy it engrosses carping position. The reduction of toxic and infectious effect of health care waste on environment and all living stuffs present in environment by the disposal of waste in proper and economic way was the main responsibility of hospital management. The present research was aimed to conduct the comparative analysis of hospital waste management in three main hospital at Faisalabad city for the development of improvement strategies. In this study, at Allied, District Headquarter and Govt. General hospital Samanabad waste management at each step was observed and evaluated. Cardiac care unit, immune care unit, children ward, gynae ward, outdoors department, laboratory and theatre were the main portion at which management was assessed. The comparison between management of hospital was made to point out best working conditions of management at current situations. Questionnaire was conducted in each hospital and result are shown by employing Microsoft Excel. The absence of management practices was observed at different points. The status of incinerator was observed. Gas emission control devices was not attached to the incinerator unit. In all hospitals, incineration come to know as final disposal method. Finally, for additional sequence of achievement, the developments approaches and solid recommendations were adapted. So that transmission of hospital waste toxic and infectious effect toward environment may reduce by such improvements and development approaches.

Pages 16-21
Year 2018
Issue 2
Volume 2

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INDIGENOUS VESICULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI EFFECT ON MAIZE UNDER DIFFERENT TEXTURES

ABSTRACT

 

INDIGENOUS VESICULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI EFFECT ON MAIZE UNDER DIFFERENT TEXTURES

Journal: Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)
Author: Fariha Ilyas, M. Arif, Aysha Iftikhar, Asma Sattar, Do Minh Cuong, Mehwish Ilyas, Amna Parveen

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esp.02.2018.12.15

Plant health and biomass relies on nutrient availability and the efficiency with which nutrients are taking in by plants. Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM) is a symbiotic association between plant roots and fungus. VAM improve plant growth by modifying its rhizosphere soil and helps in nutrient uptake by plants. Our aim was to evaluate the growth of maize (Zea mays) and quantify mycorrhizae under different textures and in phosphorous deficient soils. Treatments include different types of soil texture (pure soil, pure sand and 1:1 soil+sand) along with recommended rate of nitrogen and potassium fertilizer while no phosphorous fertilizer was used. Root colonization, growth rate of plant, biomass of plant root and shoot and effect of VAM and roots on rhizosphere soil pH were observed. Results showed that shoot biomass was significantly improved in plain soil treatment as compared to sandy texture soils. Root:shoot ratio was significantly decreased in plain soil as compared to plants in sand. pH was reduced in all treatments significantly. Root colonization ranges from 40-49% and colonization rates higher in sandy soils than others. Results suggested that VAM infection show well growth in its natural environment and improve plant growth and yield.

Pages 12-15
Year 2018
Issue 2
Volume 2

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EVALUATION OF ROTARY HOT-AIR DRYER FOR THE VALUE ADDITION OF FRUIT WASTE

ABSTRACT

 

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EVALUATION OF ROTARY HOT-AIR DRYER FOR THE VALUE ADDITION OF FRUIT WASTE

Journal: Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)
Author: Faiza Jamil, Rizwan Arshad, Dr. Muhammad Azhar Ali

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esp.02.2018.07.11

Citrus waste is solid residue that remains after fresh fruits are squeezed for their juices. Pakistan is among the top ten citrus producing countries in the world. Pakistan is contributing 2.16 million tons per annum in fruit waste generation. Fresh food waste is often used locally to feed animals as milk enhancer. When fresh fruit are squeezed, a solid residue is produced which is commonly known as citrus waste. Fresh citrus waste has a natural acidity, but it is still a perishable product due to its high moisture content and soluble sugar. Dehydration method is usually applied for the removal of moisture content up to less than 10 % to increases the shelf life for easy handling and transportation. The present study enables the design of a rotary-hot air dryer having an internal rotating body. The drying efficiency increased with the increase in the internal temperature and the air flow rate in the rotary drum, while the drying efficiency decreases with increasing the drum speed. The drying process provided the optimal results with respect to drying time and Vitamin C concentration. The present designed hot-air dryer provides fundamentals for fruit pulp industry who can easily adopt this technology. This dryer can be installed within pulp industry and waste can be processed at source point. The dehydration process increases the shelf life of citrus fruit waste and it will be available throughout the year around the country. The dehydrated material can enhance the milk quantity of animal.

Pages 07-11
Year 2018
Issue 2
Volume 2

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PETROGRAPHY OF SANDSTONE OF THE LUMSHIWAL FORMATION FROM EASTERN HAZARA, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN: IMPLICATIONS FOR PROVENANCE, DIAGENESIS AND ENVIRONMENTS OF DEPOSITION

ABSTRACT

 

PETROGRAPHY OF SANDSTONE OF THE LUMSHIWAL FORMATION FROM EASTERN HAZARA, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN: IMPLICATIONS FOR PROVENANCE, DIAGENESIS AND ENVIRONMENTS OF DEPOSITION

Journal: Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)
Author: Yasin Rahim, Dr. M. Sabir Khan, Saleem Mughal

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esp.02.2018.01.06

Detailed petrographically studies and microfacies analysis of the Lower Cretaceous Lumshiwal Formation from the eastern Hazara, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan have been carried out from a number of sections. Fourteen microfacies including glauconitic sandstone have been identified. These studies have contributed towards the interpretation of its provenance, diagenetic components combined with the environment of deposit. It can help to understand the difference between the Lumshiwal formation of eastern Hazara with other type sections in Kala-Chita Range and Samana Range by correlating them with respect to environments of deposition.

Pages 01-06
Year 2018
Issue 2
Volume 2

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COMPARISON OF DRINKING WATER BOTTLES OF DIFFERENT COUNTRIES ALONG WITH ZAMZAM WATER

ABSTRACT

 

COMPARISON OF DRINKING WATER BOTTLES OF DIFFERENT COUNTRIES ALONG WITH ZAMZAM WATER

Journal: Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)

Author: Sajid Mahmood, Syed Tahseen Kazmi, Syed Shahzaib Ali

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esp.01.2018.05.14

Bottled water is perceived by many people of Pakistan and other countries as well a safer alternative to other sources of water such as tap water. This may be attributed to consumers disliking the taste of tap water or it’s organoleptic. Bottled water usage has increased even in countries where clean tap water is present such as in Germany, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia etc. The objective of present study was to compare the drinkable bottled water quality between different countries along with ZamZam water. Eleven different brands of bottled water including one un- bottled water (zamzam) collected from Pakistan, U.A.E, Kuwait, Germany and Saudi Arabia. They were analyzed for physiochemical and microbiological parameters for estimation of quality of water. For physio-chemical analysis, the pH meter, EC meter, Flame photometer and UV-Spectrophotometer were used respectively. For bacteriological parameters like Total Coliforms, Fecal Coliform and E. coli, filtration technique is adopted. In this study, comparison of mineral contents with labeled values mentioned on different brands of the countries like Rawdatain(Kuwait), Al- Ain(UAE), and Masafi (UAE) which have difference in actual measured values and labelled but all within WHO and IBWA standards. Bottle water companies claim, the water from different sources such as spring, deep ground and natural water but no doubt it may be taken from different natural sources and they are saying it a mineral water when it was not pass through any treatment processes. These bottles water are actually processed/treated water which does not contain sufficient amount of minerals necessary for the health.

Pages 05-14
Year 2018
Issue 1
Volume 2

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EVALUATION OF LOW COST ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY NATURAL EXTRACTS FOR THE PURIFICATION OF DRINKING WATER

ABSTRACT

 

EVALUATION OF LOW COST ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY NATURAL EXTRACTS FOR THE PURIFICATION OF DRINKING WATER

Journal: Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)
Author: Asadullah Nawaz, Faizan Arshad, Farva Khurshid

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esp.01.2018.23.25

About 44% citizens of Pakistan do not have access to safe drinking water. Good quality filters used for the purification of water are out of range for people of remote areas. This study has been conducted to check the efficiencies of different environment friendly materials which are locally available like Rice husk, incomplete burnt rice husk, Wheat husk and Saw dust. Collected materials were passed through pretreatment process like washing, drying and setup developed. Rice husk is burnt under solar concentrators. Samples of drinking water collected from different points from University of Agriculture Faisalabad. The results show that incomplete burnt rice husk is most efficient among all others in controlling different parameters of drinking water like TDS, EC, PH, DO etc. For future it is recommended use rice husk in clay for the formation of filter setup and burns it in kiln. Biological parameters will also be check of drinking water after passing through this setup.

Pages 23-25
Year 2018
Issue 1
Volume 2

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CHARACTERIZATION OF AQUIFERS IN PARTS OF ABIA STATE, SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

 

CHARACTERIZATION OF AQUIFERS IN PARTS OF ABIA STATE, SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA

Journal: Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)
Author: Abija, F.A, Nwankwoala, H.O

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esp.01.2018.18.22

This study was carried out to map and characterize the water bearing formations (aquifers) in Abia State, southeastern Nigeria. Aquifer hydraulic properties were obtained from existing borehole logs and pumping tests data obtained from the field. More recent productive boreholes in the study area were accurately geo-referenced by taking GPS elevations and coordinates. A synergy of all data collected during field visits and those gleaned from the literature, and the geologic information available were analyzed and interpreted to meet the broad framework and specific objectives of this study. Vertical electrical resistivity depth sounding for inferring the resistivity and thicknesses of the vertical succession of different conducting zones in the subsurface was employed in characterization of the subsurface auriferous units. The depth of the boreholes drilled varies from 21.02m – 250m, while the static water level (SWL) varies between 4.57m around Ukwa-West to about 35.97m around Aba South. The depth range of 9.15m to 53.05m to the auriferous zone for Umuahia Local Government Area is in agreement with the value of 35.0m. Very productive aquifers in Abia State are limited to the alluvial deposits and the Coastal Plain Sands lithologies comprising: fine, medium and coarse-grained and often pebbly sands with some intercalations of clays. The alluvium occurs mainly in Ukwa West and East Local Government Areas. Drilling depths in this aquifer range from 30 to 140m. Prolific production is expected from this alluvium which has an approximate permeability of 35m2/day. The High production rate (Permeability = 35m2/day) is expected in the Coastal Plain Sands sediments found in all Local Government Areas stretching south of Umuahia and Bende. Drilling depths ranging from 40 to 250 m are recommended for boreholes in these LGAs. However, more precise drilling depths must be confirmed by hydro-geophysical site survey, because the geology of Abia State becomes more complicated north of Umuahia and Bende LGAs. This complication in geology affects all other LGAs north of Umuahia.

Pages 18-22
Year 2018
Issue 1
Volume 2

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