Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)

HYDROGEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION USING ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY METHOD IN TANKE ILORIN, KWARA STATE

HYDROGEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION USING ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY METHOD IN TANKE ILORIN, KWARA STATE

ABSTRACT

HYDROGEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION USING ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY METHOD IN TANKE ILORIN, KWARA STATE

Journal: Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)
Author: Obaro R.I, Agbalajobi S.A, Adio O

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esp.02.2020.65.69

Geophysical investigation using electrical sounding technique was carried out in Tanke community Ilorin, in order to characterize or explore ground water potential. The top soil resistivity values vary from 68.1Ωm to 65.1Ωm and thickness varying between 1.7m to 9.9m. The second layer resistivity values varies from 32.9Ωm to 651.1Ωm and the thickness vary from 2.9m to 12.7m.The third layer is the weathered basement with resistivity and thickness values varying between 22.6Ωm to 9562.6Ωm and 7.8m to 51.1m.The fourth layer is the partly weathered and fractured basement with resistivity and thickness values varying between 101Ωm to 2100Ωm and 80.1m to 124m while the fifth layer is apparently fresh basement whose resistivity values vary from 154.9Ωm to 7130Ωm with an infinite depth. The study further reveal VES 3, 4, and 5 as productive fractures within the weathered basement while other VES points are not productive.

Pages 65-69
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

Download

Posted by din

LEROYI: A NEW TETHYAN LAGENID BENTHIC FORAMINIFERAL GENUS

ABSTRACT

LEROYI: A NEW TETHYAN LAGENID BENTHIC FORAMINIFERAL GENUS

Journal: Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)
Author: Haidar Salim Anan

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esp.02.2020.60.64

Leroyi n. gen., is introduced to include the Cretaceous-Neogene (predominantly Maastrichtian-Eocene) benthic Lagenid foraminiferids from many Tethyan localities that characterized by its slightly coiled early portion of the smooth test, later slightly arcuate uniserial chambers increasing in length as added, oblique depressed sutures, aperture radial of dorsal angle. I suggest Leroyi as a new genus to accommodate foraminifera with these characters. This new genus have been previously assigned to Marginulina sp. C of LeRoy (1953), and here assigned as a genotype of the new genus. Four species were previously described from two localities in Egypt (Maqfi section, Farafra Oasis and Nekhl section, Sinai) are treated here as a new species of the new genus, and formally named as: Leroyi aegyptiaca Anan, n. sp., L. maqfiensis Anan, n. sp., L. deserti (Said & Kenawy, 1956), L. ghorabi (Said & Kenawy, 1956). One Tunisian species: Leroyi tunisiana Anan, n. sp. is added to these Egyptian species. Another European and American species: Leroyi glabra (d’Orbigny) is added to these Laginid group. These six species of the Lagenid new genus Leroyi are recorded in six localities in the Tethys (USA, France, Italy, Tunisia Egypt, UAE and India).

Pages 60-64
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

Download

Posted by din

THE LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY OF THE NEAR-SURFACE IN PART OF SEDIMENTARY KOLMANI FIELD IN NORTHERN BENUE TROUGH, NIGERIA, USING SOIL CORE AND SEISMIC REFRACTION DATA

ABSTRACT

THE LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY OF THE NEAR-SURFACE IN PART OF SEDIMENTARY KOLMANI FIELD IN NORTHERN BENUE TROUGH, NIGERIA, USING SOIL CORE AND SEISMIC REFRACTION DATA

Journal: Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)
Author: Glory G. Akpan, Etim D. Uko, Owajiokiche D. Ngerebara

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esp.02.2020.53.59

Soil samples from 31 shallow boreholes were acquired at depths 0m, 1m, 2m, 3m, 4m, 5m, 7m, 10m, 15m, 20m, 25m, 30m, 35m, 40m, 45m, 50m, 55m, and 60m in Pingida (Kolmani Field) in Ako LGA, Gombe State, Nigeria. Using the same boreholes, seismic refraction data was also acquired. The aim of the survey was to delineate the near-surface lithology and velocity layering. The boreholes were drilled using rotary drilling rig and the core samples acquired and described using Wentworth Scale. Seismic refraction data acquired using a single trace Stratavisor NZXP portable digital recorder. The recording spread consisted of a single SM4- 10Hz geophone positioned at depths where the soil samples were taken. A hammer was used as the energy source and placed 3m away from the hole to obtain the first breaks. The refraction data was interpreted using UDISYS Version 1.0.0.0 software. The soil layers in the Kolmani Field have three distinct layers specified as follows, namely, top weathered and sub-consolidated layers made up of intercalation of sandstone, gravel ash clay and muddy coal shale. The lithologic strata do not correlate throughout the field resulting from the highly variable elevation which ranged from 317m and 524m with average of 389.16m. The top weathered layer of laterite intercalated with cobblestones with compressional wave velocity ranging from 342 ms-1 to 517 ms-1 with an average of 405.03 ms-1. Beneath the weathered layer is the sub-consolidated Clay layer intercalated with silt and laterite of compressional wave velocity ranging from 440 ms-1 to 1854 ms-1 of average of 826 ms-1. The underlying consolidated layer is the shale and coal layer having compressional wave velocity ranging from 1518 ms-1 to 4201 ms-1 with an average of 2162.65 ms-1. The dominant lithologic sequences encountered are laterite, clay, silt, sand, gravel, coal and shale. The results of this work can be used for static corrections in seismic reflection processing, planning and assessing risk for engineering structures, and for groundwater exploration. The laterite, clay, silt, sand, gravel, coal and shale can be utilized in agriculture, construction, process industries, and environmental remediation.

Pages 53-59
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

Download

Posted by din

GROUNDWATER QUALITY MODELING FOR SUITABILITY FOR IRRIGATION PURPOSES IN OIL PRODUCING AREAS OF KHANA AND GOKANA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS OF RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

GROUNDWATER QUALITY MODELING FOR SUITABILITY FOR IRRIGATION PURPOSES IN OIL PRODUCING AREAS OF KHANA AND GOKANA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS OF RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA

Journal: Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)
Author: Nwankwoala, H.O, Amachree, T

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esp.02.2020.47.52

This study is aimed at modeling groundwater quality for irrigation purposes in oil producing areas of Khana and Gokana Local Government areas of Rivers State, Nigeria. A random sampling approach was adopted in groundwater sampling in Khana and Gokana local government areas of Rivers State. Groundwater samples were collected from a total of twenty-two (22) boreholes in the area. Ten (10) residential boreholes were sampled in Khana while 12 boreholes were sampled in Gokana local government area. Various indices were used to determine the quality of groundwater for irrigation in the study area such as Electrical Conductivity (EC), Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Permeability Index (PI), Percent Sodium (%Na), Magnesium Adsorption Ratio (MAR), Kelly’s Ratio (KR) and Potential Soil Salinity (PS). In Khana area, all the water samples have PI values which render the groundwater unsuitable for irrigational purposes. Meanwhile, in Gokana, the groundwater samples show good to excellent quality for irrigation purposes. A high permeability index enhances crops yield, because the soils becomes more aerated and allows flow to occur easily, carrying plant nutrients from one part of the soil to the other. All groundwater samples in the area plotted in the C1-S1 (low sodium hazard and low salinity), C2-S1 (low sodium hazard and moderate salinity) and C3-S1 (low sodium hazard and high salinity) category which represents low sodium hazard and low salinity hazards and are therefore suitable for irrigation.

Pages 47-52
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

Download

Posted by din

GEOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF LAKE VAN (TURKEY) FOR URANIUM-THORIUM DEPOSITION

ABSTRACT

GEOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF LAKE VAN (TURKEY) FOR URANIUM-THORIUM DEPOSITION

Journal: Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)
Author: Abdullah Mete Özgüner

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esp.01.2020.34.46

Purpose of this study is to prove most probable existence of economical U-Th mineralisations within Tatvan Basin which have been hidden among foreign international research project manuscripts of Lake Van and to inform the importance of national exploration studies. Lake Van is a pull-apart basin formed within Quaternary Muş-Zagros suture zone with right lateral movement. Calculations on heat transfer below the Tatvan Basin indicate that a constant heat flow is about fourty times the continental average which have been only reported from some oceanic ridges. Data indicate the heat source below Tatvan Basin bottom represents a steadily collapsing cauldron subsidence of Nemrut volcano’s magma chamber. Lake Van surface water has mean 76ppb dissolved uranium content of hyrothermal and authigenic origin. It is calculated that there is at least 50.000 tons of dissolved uranium exists in the Lake Van waters. Ultimate deposition of U-Th mineralisation within euxinic Tatvan Basin have been expected to be a continuous process during geologic history of Lake Van as long as uranium resources remain and its NaHCO3 water functions as dissolving agent Sodic Lake Van waters continuously dissolve uranium from 1) high 3He/4He and U-Th containing hydrothermal fluxes of mantle origin coming up through cauldron subsidence faults of Tatvan Basin, 2) per-alkaline rhyolitic volcanic ash rain of Nemrut volcanism, 3) Bitlis granitoid Massive basement, 4) repeated authigenic disentegrations of U to (Th and 4He) within the sedimentary deposites of Tatvan Basin through its 600.000 years history. Tatvan Basin is the deepest basin with 450m depth, 300km2 flat area and constant unoxic basal water table undisturbed by currents and has the following verifications for Quaternary U-Th depositions in the unconsolidated porous sediments: 1) organic mass rich levels with reducing microbial activities, 2) evaporitic dolomites deposited during low stand lake levels with high U-Th concentrations, 3) varved, mixed-layered clays with high hectorite content, 4) sub-aquaeous, basic-intermediate volcanic basement intrusions with reducing properties, 5) measured very low redox potentials in basal environment, 6) very high density of U-Th. Drilling core sequence and the gamma ray logs from Ahlat Ridge have been used in the foreign literature published since 1974 until now while the existence or non-existence of uranium has not been mentioned. Gamma ray logs of drilling cores and their pore water analyses from Tatvan Basin were carried out abroad but not published yet. Thus gamma ray logs belonging only to shallow Ahlat Ridge sequence where uranium mineral precipitation is not possible is misleading.

Pages 34-46
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

Download

Posted by din

HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS DUE TO UNTREATED WASTEWATER IRRIGATED VEGETABLES

ABSTRACT

HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS DUE TO UNTREATED WASTEWATER IRRIGATED VEGETABLES

Journal: Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)
Author: Ayesha Nawaz, Sana Basheer, Awais Masood Ahmed, Haroon Rashid, Abdul Nasir, Shamim Umer

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esp.01.2020.25.33

The present research study was conducted on Health risk assessment of heavy metals due to untreated wastewater irrigated vegetables in Faisalabad city. Samples of soil, groundwater, wastewater and vegetables were collected from different regions of the city where wastewater irrigation was in practice. The ground water and wastewater samples were analyzed for all the basic physical and chemical parameters and heavy metals like (Nickel, Lead, Cadmium, Zinc, Copper and Chromium). Most of the chemical parameters where in access to standard limits of USEPA. It was found that the majority the heavy metal concentrations in soil are deteriorated because of wastewater. Analysis of heavy metals in Vegetables that their concentrations in vegetables were in the order of Zn>Ni>Cr>Cu>Pb>Cd. The concentration of heavy metals like (Zn, Ni, Cr and Cu) in vegetables were above the safe limit. While TF was lower for all metals except Cd. HRI was maximum for Pb and Ni in all vegetables. HQ was maximum for Ni, Pb and Cd. The vegetables tested were not safe for human use, especially those directly consumed by human beings

Pages 25-33
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

Download

Posted by din

IMPACT OF CLIMATIC PARAMETERS ON CROP WATER REQUIREMENTS IN DIFFERENT AGRO ECOLOGICAL ZONES OF PAKISTAN

ABSTRACT

IMPACT OF CLIMATIC PARAMETERS ON CROP WATER REQUIREMENTS IN DIFFERENT AGRO ECOLOGICAL ZONES OF PAKISTAN

Journal: Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)
Author: Imran Shaukat, Hafiz Ihsan-ul-Haq, Hafiz M. Safdar, Rao Husnain Arshad

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esp.01.2020.21.24

The problem of climate change has become very strongly during last two decades on global scale in view of the projected consequences on the environment of unguarded states. Gradually rising temperature and its effects on the crops here and rainfall are obvious in many areas around the world. Climate change related to natural and anthropogenic processes in Pakistan is the major source of study in this report. The impacts of these climate changes appear to be additional component of the large number of existing water related problems in every station of Pakistan. The objective of this report is to analyze the global warming effect on CWR. For this purpose, we made seven scenarios So, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5 and S6. From So-S3 crop water requirement increases in all regions but from S4-S6 crop water requirement remains same. For this purpose we selected different cities from agro ecological stations to check the effect of climate change on CWR. Faisalabad, Gupis, Jacobabad, Kalat, Karachi, Multan, Nawabshah, Peshawar and Zhob are the regions selected for this research. Different scenarios have been made such that, in So scenario temperature remains same but from S1, S2 and S3 scenarios temperature is increases 1, 2 and 3 degree centigrade respectively. While, in S4, S5 and S6 scenarios precipitation increases or decreases according to the climatic changes of that area (So, S1, S2, S3, ) and then we increase or decrease the precipitation rate by 5%, 10% and 15% (S4, S5, S6) in accordance with the zone. From result it is concluded that the crop water requirement in arid and in semi-arid is increasing annually on the other hand the total value of effective rainfall in Pakistan is decreasing.

Pages 21-24
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

Download

Posted by din

TAXONOMICAL CONSIDERATIONS, PHYLOGENY, PALEOGEOGRAPHY AND PALEOCLIMATOLOGY OF THE MIDDLE EOCENE (BARTONIAN) PLANKTIC FORAMINIFERA FROM JABAL HAFIT, AL AIN AREA, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

ABSTRACT

TAXONOMICAL CONSIDERATIONS, PHYLOGENY, PALEOGEOGRAPHY AND PALEOCLIMATOLOGY OF THE MIDDLE EOCENE (BARTONIAN) PLANKTIC FORAMINIFERA FROM JABAL HAFIT, AL AIN AREA, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

Journal: Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)
Author: Haidar Salim Anan

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esp.01.2020.10.20

The taxonomical consideration, probable phylogeny and stratigraphic significance of twenty-eight middle Eocene (Bartonian) planktic foraminiferal species from the eastern limb of Jabal Hafit, Al Ain area, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Northern Oman Mountains (NOM) are presented, and twenty one of them are illustrated. Identification of these twenty-eight species belonging to ten genera Globoturborotalia, Subbotina, Globigerinatheka, Inordinatosphaera, Orbulinoides, Hantkenina, Acarinina, Morozovelloides, Pseudohastigerina and Turborotalia has led to the recognition of three biostratigraphic zones, in ascending order: Morozovelloides lehneri PRZ (E11), Orbulinoides beckmanni TRZ (E12) and Morozovelloides crassata HOZ (E13). Eight out of the identified species are recorded, in this study, for the first time from Jabal Hafit: Globoturborotalia martini, Subbotina gortanii, S. jacksonensis, S. senni, Globigerinatheca barri, Acarinina praetopilensis, A. punctocarinata and Morozovelloides bandyi. The second or third record of three species from J. Hafit outside its original records are recently documented by the present author: Inordinatosphaera indica, Hantkenina australis and H. compressa. The paleontology, paleoclimatology and paleogeographic distribution of the identified taxa at Jabal Hafit and other Paleogene outcrops in the UAE and Tethys are presented and discussed. The identified fauna emphasis the wide geographic areas in the Tethys, from Atlantic to Indian-Pacific Oceans via Mediterranean.

Pages 10-20
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

Download

Posted by din

SOIL SALINITY MAPPING USING SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING: A CASE STUDY OF LOWER CHENAB CANAL SYSTEM, PUNJAB

ABSTRACT

SOIL SALINITY MAPPING USING SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING: A CASE STUDY OF LOWER CHENAB CANAL SYSTEM, PUNJAB

Journal: Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)
Author: Muhammad Mohsin Waqas, Yasir Niaz, Sikandar Ali, Ishfaq Ahmad, Muhammad Fahad, Haroon Rashid, Usman Khalid Awan

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esp.01.2020.07.09

Salinity is the most important factor of consideration for the water management policies. The water availability from the rootzone reduced with the increase in the soil salinity due to the increase in the osmatic pressure. In Pakistan, salinity is the major threat to the agriculture land due to the tradition practices of irrigation and extensive utilization of the groundwater to meet the cope the irrigation water requirement of high intensity cropping system. The salinity impact is spatially variable on the canal commands area of the irrigation system. There is dire need to map the spatially distributed soil salinity with the high resolution. Landsat satellite imagery provides an opportunity to have 30m pixel information in seven spectral wavelength ranges. In this study, the soil salinity mapping was performed using pixel information on visible and infrared bands for 2015. These bands were also used to infer Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The raw digital numbers were converted into soil salinity information. The accuracy assessment was carried out using ground trothing information obtained using the error matrix method. Four major classes of non-saline, marginal saline, moderate saline and strongly, saline area was mapped. The overall accuracy of the classified map was found 83%. These maps can be helpful to delineate hot spots with severe problem of soil salinity in order to prepare reciprocate measures for improvement.

Pages 07-09
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

Download

Posted by din

TAXONOMIC CONSIDERATION AND STRATIGRAPHIC IMPLICATION OF THE ACCELERATED EVOLUTION OF THE MAASTRICHTIAN-EOCENE TRANSITION OF TWENTY BENTHIC FORAMINIFERAL SPECIES IN THE TETHYS

ABSTRACT

TAXONOMIC CONSIDERATION AND STRATIGRAPHIC IMPLICATION OF THE ACCELERATED EVOLUTION OF THE MAASTRICHTIAN-EOCENE TRANSITION OF TWENTY BENTHIC FORAMINIFERAL SPECIES IN THE TETHYS

Journal: Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)
Author: Haidar Salim Anan

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esp.01.2020.01.06

Within the Maastrichtian-Eocene transition in some localities in the Tethys, ten trends of accelerated evolution are recognized within twenty species belong to eight benthic foraminiferal genera: Siphogaudryina, Textularia, Pseudoclavulina, Pyramidulina, Frondicularia, Hopkinsina, Gyroidinoides and Angulogavelinella. Three out of the identified species are treated here to be new: Textularia haquei, Pyramidulina leroyi and Hopkinsina haquei. These lineages marked by changes in the morphology of the foraminiferal test, throughout the number, size and shape of chambers, ornamentation, size and position of aperture, suture and umbilicus. The identified Maastrichtian-Eocene species in this study are recognized in different localities in the Tethys: USA, France, Italy, Tunisia, Egypt, Jordan, UAE, Qatar and Pakistan.

Pages 01-06
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

Download

Posted by din