Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)

Site investigation of open dumping site of Municipal Solid Waste in Faisalabad

Site investigation of open dumping site of Municipal Solid Waste in Faisalabad

ABSTRACT

 

Site investigation of open dumping site of Municipal Solid Waste in Faisalabad

Journal: Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)
Author: Hafsa Yasin and Muhammad Usman

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esp.01.2017.23.25

Inappropriately solid waste handling and disposing are promoting environmental problems in Pakistan. Deteriorating environmental quality is a serious consequence of open dumping site and is rapidly increasing concern for public. To investigate, the causes Muhammada Wala dumping site was chosen. There is a tremendous amount of solid waste generating and dumped without any precautionary measures. Due to development of industries and urban areas the condition is going to be harsh. The aim of this study is the site investigation of the dumping site and its consequences on environment. Water samples were collected near the site, analyzed in the laboratory and interviews were taken. Significant high TDS was observed in ground water. Communicable diseases and unhygienic environment were revealed from this research. The main collapses of municipal solid waste systems are unplanned management of the city, intense climatic conditions, absence of awareness of users and community participation, inadequate resources including machinery and lack of funds.

Pages 23-25
Year 2017
Issue 1
Volume 1

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Performance Evaluation of Fly Ash and Red Brick Dust for Recovery of Chromium from Tannery Wastewater by Adsorption Method

ABSTRACT

 

Performance Evaluation of Fly Ash and Red Brick Dust for Recovery of Chromium from Tannery Wastewater by Adsorption Method

Journal: Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)
Author: Ramsha Rehman, Ammara Khan, Haroon Rashid and Abdul Nasir

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esp.01.2017.19.22

Waste water contains hazardous chemicals released from industries and affects adversely aquatic life as well as deteriorates surface and groundwater quality. The industrial effluent is disposed into drains without treatment thus worsening condition. It alters the living condition of aquatic life and effects the environment adversely. It affects human being some time directly and sometime indirectly. Chromium contamination is a serious problem because of cancer-causing effect of the pollutants and low recovery rate of chromium owing to the existence of organics, such as protein as well as fat. Objective of this study was to determine viability of adsorbents like fly ash and red brick dust for chromium ions recovery from tannery wastewater. Aqueous solutions of Cr(III) was prepared by dissolving the specific amounts of chromium Sulphate in de ionized water. Concentration of Cr (III) was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The adsorption of chromium on fly ash as well as red brick dust was determined at different Cr (III) concentrations, contact time, adsorbent dosage and pH. By comparing results of both adsorbents it was concluded that performance efficiency of both fly ash and red brick dust was good for removal and recovery of chromium. But red brick dust was more effective as compared to fly ash. Because maximum recovery of chromium was observed at pH 4; adsorbent red brick dust; contact time 3hours; and adsorbent dosage 1000g. Red brick dust declared as good adsorbent for the recovery of chromium from tannery waste water.

Pages 19-22
Year 2017
Issue 1
Volume 1

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Quantification of CO2 Emissions from Vehicles and Possible Remedial Strategies in Faisalabad City

ABSTRACT

 

Quantification of CO2 Emissions from Vehicles and Possible Remedial Strategies in Faisalabad City

Journal: Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)
Author: Muhammad Usman, Hafsa Yasin, Haroon Rashid and Abdul Nasir

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esp.01.2017.15.18

Vehicular emissions pose a negative impact on the environment. Carbon dioxide is the main contributor to global warming which result due to greenhouse effect. The aim of this study is to quantify the CO2 emissions from transportation sector and determine the amount of trees required for compensating that quantified emissions. Road transport sector causes more urban airborne pollution than any other single human activity. Faisalabad is 3rd largest city of Pakistan where the situation is getting alarming due to industrial explosion, population growth and increasing high volume of traffic and it was selected for quantification of CO2. The practical application of emission could be seen last winter in a form of smog and it affected the visibility as well as causing irritation problem in eyes and nose. The study was carried out based on the emission factors of petrol and diesel i.e. 2.3 kg/L and 2.7 kg/L respectively. After collecting vehicular data, distances w.r.t vehicles type and fuels w.r.t distances were determined .With application of emission factors calculations on various amount of fuel used by various vehicles the summation of all emissions were determined. The concentration of CO2 emissions are 601.96 tons minimum, 894.4 tons averagely and 1190.23 tons maximum respectively. As our whole system of transportation is based on fossil fuel and complete shifting to clean fuel is time consuming and difficult so, plantation is the natural and more effective way of cleaning our air because they are natural eaters of CO2. To compensate the maximum emissions, it requires 20million of plantations per year.

Pages 15-18
Year 2017
Issue 1
Volume 1

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Studies on the Removal of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solution Using Immobilized Typha angustata L.

ABSTRACT

 

Studies on the Removal of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solution Using Immobilized Typha angustata L.

Journal: Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)
Author: Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf, Nur Hayati Hussin, Mohammadreza Gharibreza

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esp.01.2017.11.14

The sorption capacity of Immobilized Typha angustata L. for the removal of metal ions (Fe3+,Pb2+, Zn2+, Cr3+ and Cd2+ ) were studied using batch experiments. The residual metal ion concentrations were investigated using AAS. The influence of factors such as contact time, initial concentration, ionic strength pH and temperature were investigated. The metal ion sorption capacity by IBCC decreases with increasing ionic strength but increases with increasing pH values and initial metal ion concentration. The sorption rate for the metal ions was rapid for the first 30 minutes and equilibrium was established within 2 hrs. The maximum sorption capacity for Fe3+, Pb2+, Cd3+,Cr2+, and Zn2+ were found to be 98.65, 96.36,90.57, 84.38 and 80.28 respectively. From the experimental work on the sorption capacity of IBCC sorbent, our result showed that the abundantly wasted Typha angustata L. could be turned into an environmentally friendly, and cost effective sorbent for the removal of heavy metalions from waste water.

Pages 11-14
Year 2017
Issue 1
Volume 1

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Physiological and Physical Impact of Noise Pollution on Environment

ABSTRACT

 

Physiological and Physical Impact of Noise Pollution on Environment

Journal: Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)
Author: Malik Muhammad Anees, Muhammad Qasim, Aroj Bashir

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esp.01.2017.08.10

Environment pollution is a major problem of the world and it is mainly influence to the health of human, animals and ecosystem. This paper provides the brief view about the affects of noise as environment pollution in the perspective of noise pollution on human by diseases and problems among living organisms. Study finds that these kinds of pollutions are not only seriously affecting the human by diseases and problems but also the biodiversity. Still time left in the hands of worlds institutions, local bodies and government to use the advance resources to balance the environment .With the promotion of science and technology at a unique tempo, the urban points of the world have evolved not just in size but also in terms of the living situation. This brings about new awareness about the noise pollution, which is the part of our day-to-day lives. It is conducted by studies that trace the amount of damage caused by the noise from various natural as well as anthropogenic sources, especially traffic. Noise is associated with the physical, mental, emotional and psychological to all the individuals be it human beings or even animals. This is a potential risk to the requirements of sound living conditions and needs to be checked at judicial level.

Pages 08-10
Year 2017
Issue 1
Volume 1

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Exploration of Environmental Friendly adsorbents for Treatment of Azo Dyes from Textile Wastewater and its dosage optimization

ABSTRACT

 

Exploration of Environmental Friendly adsorbents for Treatment of Azo Dyes from Textile Wastewater and its dosage optimization

Journal: Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)
Author: Ammara Khan, Ramsha Rehman, Haroon Rashid and Abdul Nasir

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esp.01.2017.05.07

The major industries contributing to water pollution is textile mills. In the present study, the synthetic waste water was treated by using red brick dust and alum. Its evaluation was done by measuring pH, EC, TDS and Color removal percentage. The experiment carried out with different concentration of red brick dust and alum to measure the dosage suitability of these adsorbents for dye color removal. The pH of synthetic dye was maintained at 4, 7 and 9 then passed through the red brick dust and alum. The sequential treatment, adsorption followed by coagulation was adopted to treat the wastewater. Dosage variability showed very significant results and 75% red brick dust with combination of 25% alum concentration was found favorable for color removal of dye. The material was capable of removing color up to 92% at pH 7 at normal temperature. Other parameters like EC and pH showed abnormal trends as the amount of alum was increased but TDS were tend to decreased with the increasing amount of alum. The experimental result showed that the material has good potential to remove color from effluent and good potential as an alternate low cost adsorbent. There are many physical and chemical treatment methods available for removal of color but all these methods have problems associated such as secondary effluent, hazardous and harmful end products, high energy consuming, non-economic etc. These problems can be overcome by the use of physical treatment method (adsorption and coagulation method) which is not hazardous for environment.

Pages 05-07
Year 2017
Issue 1
Volume 1

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Efficient and Eco-friendly Management of biodegradable Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) using naturally aerated Windrow Composting Technique in District Lahore Pakistan

ABSTRACT

 

Efficient and Eco-friendly Management of biodegradable Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) using naturally aerated Windrow Composting Technique in District Lahore Pakistan

Journal: Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)
Author: Naveed Ahmad, Tanveer Hussain, Abdul Nasir Awan, Asma Sattar, Chaudhary Arslan, Muhammad Qamar Tusief, Zillay Mariam

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esp.01.2017.01.04

In urban areas, management of solid waste is a big and serious issue because of high amount of waste generated from different sources (industries, domestic etc.). In Lahore solid waste generated daily is about 5000 ton comprising of around 60% biodegradable and 40% non-biodegradable waste. About 70% of waste is collected which is then disposed of in unmonitored dumping sites. It causes severe environmental problems. The present study is for minimizing the solid waste being collected. Composting technique was adopted from Municipal solid waste and garden waste. The aerated composting technique made results more efficient by using an effective microbe’s solution which acts as an activator to enhance microbial activity and reduced the composting period. The results demonstrated that compost was good in organic content 25% and carbon-nitrogen ratio 26:1. It was planned to convert organic waste into compost thus substantially reducing the MSW loads being generated in Lahore.

Pages 01-04
Year 2017
Issue 1
Volume 1

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Feasibility study of low density waste plastic in non load bearing asphalt pavement in district faisalabad

ABSTRACT

 

Feasibility study of low density waste plastic in non load bearing asphalt pavement in district faisalabad

Journal: Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)
Author: Syed Shahzaib Ali, Nimrah Ijaz, Nafeesa Aman, Engr.Mohsin Noor

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esp.02.2017.17.18

The rapid growth of population and development of industrial field is contributing to massive waste pollution in which plastic waste is considered as most difficult waste to deal with due to its non-biodegradable nature. This lead to various impact on environment as well as all living things. Many of the waste produced due to human activity will remain in the environment for long period of time leading to various environmental problem. To overcome this problem a study is conducted in which plastic waste is effectively utilized with bitumen a binding material in construction of flexible pavements to enhance its stability and water resistant capacity. Cleaned plastic waste is shredded to a size of 2.76mm-4mm is mixed with hot bitumen mix and then this waste plastic added bitumen is mixed with hot aggregate and the end product is used as laying material for road construction. The objective of this study is to give an innovative idea for effective use of plastic waste and recommend a favorable percentage of plastic for replacement of bitumen. This paper also includes some tests performed on aggregate and bitumen.

Pages 17-18
Year 2017
Issue 2
Volume 1

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A case study of groundwater contamination due to open dumping of municipal solid waste in faisalabad pakistan

ABSTRACT

 

A case study of groundwater contamination due to open dumping of municipal solid waste in faisalabad pakistan

Journal: Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)
Author: Muhammad Usman, Hafsa Yasin, Dr. Abdul Nasir and Waqas Mehmood

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esp.02.2017.15.16

Open dumping site causes a serious environmental problem that included water, air, surface water and ground water. Ground water is very precious source of water, but it is deteriorated by leachate formation which contains many dangerous complex compounds. Nearby areas are more affected in water quality than the far-off areas. The present study explored the municipal open dumping site of Faisalabad impacts on ground water quality. Six points were selected for water sampling at different specific distances from the sites in the study area. Then the samples were examined for seven parameters that included TDS, pH, Hardness, Turbidity, Fecal Coliform and Total Coliform to investigate the affected ground water quality. Results have showed that dangerous pollutants are important component of ground water that are in more concentration then standards and is unfit for consumption. It may result to different water born diseases respiratory problems and lungs cancer etc. Proper monitoring and supervision for leachate management and waste disposal are suggested.

Pages 15-16
Year 2017
Issue 2
Volume 1

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Experimental study on strength and durability of cement and concrete by partial replacement of fine aggregate with fly ash

ABSTRACT

 

Experimental study on strength and durability of cement and concrete by partial replacement of fine aggregate with fly ash

Journal: Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)
Author: Waheed Tariq, Syed Qalandar Hussain, Dr. Abdul Nasir, Nafeesa Tayyab, Syed Hamza Gillani, Adeel Rafiq

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Doi: 10.26480/esp.02.2017.10.14

Cement is a binding material that is used to bind different aggregate (coarse and fine) through a chemical process known as hydration in the presence of moisture. This research work is planned with the purpose to determine the most appropriate and efficient proportions of admixture i.e. fly ash so as to modify the strength properties of concrete. By adding this admixture strength properties of cement and concrete can be enhanced. Cement be replaced with different percentages levels of Fly ash as 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% by weight of cement. To work out the strength properties and the variation pattern due mixing in different proportions of fly ash for different tests such as compressive and tensile strength are planned to be performed after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days curing. These experiments were conducted at Laboratory scale. Addition of fly ash as an admixture in replacement of cement enhanced strength properties of cement and concrete up to a limit. At 10% fly ash cured for 28 days maximum compressive and tensile strength was achieved i.e. 1170 psi and 66 psi respectively. Furthermore, addition of fly ash as cement replacement showed gradual reduction in the strength properties i.e. minimum compressive and tensile strength was found to be for 50% fly ash sample cured for 7 days. As an outcome of this research fly ash is concluded to be an effective replacement of cement for non-loading constructions.

Pages 10-14
Year 2017
Issue 2
Volume 1

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