DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE OF OPTIMUM WATER SOFTENER
Journal: Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)
Author: Ahmed Sharjeel, Shafiq Anwar, Abdul Nasir, Haroon Rashid
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
Water is an important factor of life for all living organisms and it is now deteriorated very rapidly due to industrial effluents, municipal and agriculture waste leaching down the groundwater. The percolation of water through the deposits of limestone and chalk which are largely made up of calcium and magnesium carbonates increases the mineral contents. So, the presence of high mineral contents creates water hardness. Water hardness is mainly occurring by the existence of calcium and magnesium, their high concentration in water makes water hard which cause several hazardous impacts on human life. Therefore, certain concentration standard limits have been fixed by different organizations. According to WHO 500 mg/l is allowable limit for water hardness. So regular use of high concentration of Calcium and magnesium ions above standard limits is causing real problems for human beings and environment. In daily routine life different harmful incidence occurs due to hard water. To overcome this problem water softening is a technique that serves the removal of cations which are most likely the hardness factors are calcium and magnesium. Water softening is the most useful technique to remove hardness. Therefore, a water softener is developed for domestic purpose. As the development of an optimum water softener was very essential for domestic use. The water softener can have performed efficiently with a hardness range of 1000-1200 mg/l and TDS may be up to 1500mg/l. The water softener plant is also cost efficient that have almost one-time production cost and very low maintenance and running cost. After the manufacturing of water softening plant hardness, pH, DO, TDS and EC is calculated to check its efficiency. The hardness, TDS and conductivity reduces after passing the sample water through the sample, DO was increased to little extent and pH was remained in a specific range.