THE LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY OF THE NEAR-SURFACE IN PART OF SEDIMENTARY KOLMANI FIELD IN NORTHERN BENUE TROUGH, NIGERIA, USING SOIL CORE AND SEISMIC REFRACTION DATA
Journal: Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)
Author: Glory G. Akpan, Etim D. Uko, Owajiokiche D. Ngerebara
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
Soil samples from 31 shallow boreholes were acquired at depths 0m, 1m, 2m, 3m, 4m, 5m, 7m, 10m, 15m, 20m, 25m, 30m, 35m, 40m, 45m, 50m, 55m, and 60m in Pingida (Kolmani Field) in Ako LGA, Gombe State, Nigeria. Using the same boreholes, seismic refraction data was also acquired. The aim of the survey was to delineate the near-surface lithology and velocity layering. The boreholes were drilled using rotary drilling rig and the core samples acquired and described using Wentworth Scale. Seismic refraction data acquired using a single trace Stratavisor NZXP portable digital recorder. The recording spread consisted of a single SM4- 10Hz geophone positioned at depths where the soil samples were taken. A hammer was used as the energy source and placed 3m away from the hole to obtain the first breaks. The refraction data was interpreted using UDISYS Version 188.8.131.52 software. The soil layers in the Kolmani Field have three distinct layers specified as follows, namely, top weathered and sub-consolidated layers made up of intercalation of sandstone, gravel ash clay and muddy coal shale. The lithologic strata do not correlate throughout the field resulting from the highly variable elevation which ranged from 317m and 524m with average of 389.16m. The top weathered layer of laterite intercalated with cobblestones with compressional wave velocity ranging from 342 ms-1 to 517 ms-1 with an average of 405.03 ms-1. Beneath the weathered layer is the sub-consolidated Clay layer intercalated with silt and laterite of compressional wave velocity ranging from 440 ms-1 to 1854 ms-1 of average of 826 ms-1. The underlying consolidated layer is the shale and coal layer having compressional wave velocity ranging from 1518 ms-1 to 4201 ms-1 with an average of 2162.65 ms-1. The dominant lithologic sequences encountered are laterite, clay, silt, sand, gravel, coal and shale. The results of this work can be used for static corrections in seismic reflection processing, planning and assessing risk for engineering structures, and for groundwater exploration. The laterite, clay, silt, sand, gravel, coal and shale can be utilized in agriculture, construction, process industries, and environmental remediation.