UNVEILING EARTH’S GEOLOGICAL HISTORY: A GEOGRAPHICAL COMPREHENSIVE OVERVIEW
Journal: Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)
Author: Bappa Hosen
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
Earth’s geological history spans billions of years, yielding insights into its evolution, climate shifts, and life’s development. This article provides a comprehensive overview, encompassing eons, eras, and pivotal events. Geological processes like tectonics, volcanism, and continental formation are explored. We analyze stratigraphy, paleontology, and dating techniques to offer a clear understanding of Earth’s journey. Beginning with the geological time scale, the narrative delves into Precambrian eons, from the fiery Hadean to the emergence of complex life in the Proterozoic. The Paleozoic era’s emergence of terrestrial life and Cambrian explosion are detailed, along with the Mesozoic’s reptilian dominance and Pangaea’s breakup. The Cenozoic era, spanning from dinosaurs to the present, covers mammalian evolution, ice ages, and hominid impact. Geological processes that shaped Earth’s surface and lithosphere are outlined, including tectonics’ role in continental movement. Extinctions, climate shifts, and land bridge formations demonstrate how geology influenced life. Human interaction’s geological consequences, such as climate change and resource utilization, are considered. Understanding Earth’s geological history underscores our planet’s dynamic nature, informing conservation and resource management decisions. Through this exploration, we uncover the intricate relationship between geological processes, biological evolution, and environmental systems that define our world.